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Thread: Effect of Yeast Extract on the Growth of Plants - Nature 132; VIRTANEN & SYNNÖVE V. HAUSEN

  1. #1
    Trifid
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    Effect of Yeast Extract on the Growth of Plants - Nature 132; VIRTANEN & SYNNÖVE V. HAUSEN

    nature 132, 408-409 (09 September 1933) | doi:10.1038/132408b0

    Effect of Yeast Extract on the Growth of Plants

    ARTTURI I. VIRTANEN & SYNNÖVE V. HAUSEN

    Abstract
    CULTURE experiments which we have carried out with peas have shown that yeast extract—prepared by heating yeast in water—stimulates to a remarkable extent the development of blossoms. In these experiments, the plants were grown either in sterile culture fluids (pH 6.5) or in quartz sand, watered with Hiltner's nutriment solution. Nitrogen was supplied to the plants either in the form of nitrates or by inoculating the seed with active bacterial strains. When suitable amounts of yeast extract were used, the test plants started blooming 5–10 days earlier than controls (test-plants 20–25 days, controls about 30 days after sowing). The number of pods was invariably some 50 per cent greater when the plants were given yeast extract. Excessive amounts of yeast extract were found to cause deleterious effects. Work is in progress to find out which particular factor in yeast extract is responsible for the stimulating action. Particular attention will be paid to the question whether the factor which stimulates the growth and blooming of plants is identical with the factor stimulating the cell division of micro-organisms.
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  2. #2
    Autobot
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    was this really in 1933 and was a conclusion reached on which extract was responsible?

  3. #3
    AFN Admin Team Muddy's Avatar
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    Not something I've heard before. All I can say is that growing peas is quite different than growing MJ. Plus, a lot of research has been done since 1933, so I'd be skeptical about trying something like that.
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  4. #4
    Trifid
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    Yea i wouldn't be smokin those thats for sure Muddy! :lol: More recent studies do show the bio-activities of active yeasts in soil culture to be highly beneficial for near neutral pH dicots in general, that's approx. 199,350 species of plants including hops, castor, corn and tomatoes. The employment of active bread yeasts for improving growth and productivity of crops in Nettle (Urticaceae), Mulberry (Moraceae) and later, hops (Humulus sp.) was mentioned by Suriabananont (1992) and Stino et al. (2009) Rine (2010) whereby the various advantages were suspected to be attributed to its own humic acid content, it's ability to fix micro-nutrients to the rhizome, a higher percentage of proteins, vitamin B and elevated natural plant growth substances namely cytokinins.

    In addition, other recent studies demonstrate that minor application of active bread yeasts were very effective in releasing canopy CO2, which lead to improving net photosynthesis (Ferguson et al., 1987; Idso et al., 1995 and Hashem et al., 2008).

    Interestingly, brood yeast (Saccharomyces cervisiae) used as a natural bio-stimulant appeared to induce an astonished influence on growth and yield of many crops, since it has various other basic functions, i.e. CO2 evolution and assists the bio-synthesis of alcohols, acids and esters (Magoffin and Hoseney, 1974 and MartinezAnoya et al., 1990).
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    AFN Admin Team Muddy's Avatar
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    Have you tried this or are you planning to?
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  6. #6
    Trifid
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    The role of Abscisic acid in the maturation of flowering tops - By the Trifid

    I've been experimenting with yeast/algae/fungi inoculants for a number years and have had some very good results .. Here is a small article i wrote to summarize some of the advantages of supplementation and the mutalistic/symbiotic activities of yeast in plants. There are various techniques that one may apply to cultivate reliable and prolific yeasts and algae that you simply wont find in a bottle. I will document these shortly.. It is also a very cost effective strategy and is good for the environment since is reduces the amount of additives required in the soil. In recent years active yeasts have also been shown to have some very important applications in hormone manipulation for prolonging blooming periods and slowing maturity to increase production.

    Introduction - Abscisic acid (ABA)

    Abscisic acid (ABA), also known as abscisin II or 'dormin' is a plant signalling hormone responsible for many plant developmental processes, including transpiration and bud maturation. ABA was originally believed to be involved exclusively in leaf abscission but it has been shown by Bastawisy, M. H and Sorial (1998) not to be the case.

    In the natural setting, plants preparing for the fall, following a growing season produce high quantities of ABA in their terminal buds. This slows plant growth until a state of dormancy or suspended animation is reached. This induces abscission and directs leaf primordia to develop thickening of vascular tissues to protect the seeded buds during the winter season.

    ABA degradation - Role of yeast in oxidoreductase bio-sythesis

    ABA is degraded by the oxidoreductase enzyme (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase produced by plants to inhibit the activity of abscisic acid at the termini of immature flowering tops. This induces periods of rapid blooming following the onset of pre-flowers and limits ethylene production. As the growing season draws to a close and floral density reaches a Plateau (full bloom), oxidoreductase levels plummet with a rapid decline and thereby raising levels of ABA activity and ethylene production - initiating the maturation process.

    Oxidoreductases are also produced in abundance by various marine algae, pathogenic fungi and yeast cells. With regards to phenotypes supplemented with, or producing-directly an abundance of oxidoreductase enzymes, periods of prolonged blooming are clearly observed (Abd-El-Dayem and El –Deeb 2000). Flower development in these phenotypes is often accelerated and significantly more productive. Conversely, those phenotypes that display a sensitivity to ABA are often found to dramatically under-perform, and have poor stomatal regulation.

    The application of active yeasts to induce ABA inhibition can be used suitably in the agricultural setting to prolong or sustain the development of crops to significantly improve commercial yields. By selective inoculation of early maturing crops with active yeasts and yeast extracts in the early stages of flowering, bloom times can be extended considerably .

    Recent findings (Davis and Zhang, 1991/1998) suggest that the increased productivity and quality of yeilds may be related to the coupling of elevated levels of growth promoters (auxin/cytokinins) and ABA inhibition and the colony's ability to fix nitrogen as well as to dramatically increase the rhizome surface area enhancing the levels micronutrient (not P and K though..) absorption. Others studies provide similar findings (Marchner, 1995 and Nakhlla 1998)... They concluded that B-vitamins, Zn as well as an abundant cytokinin source is required for oxidoreductase bio-synthesis. These results indicate that the shoots characteristics were significantly improved by both bacterial and yeast culture inoculation or both in combination.

    Azotobacter bacteria has the ability to release some chemical compounds that stimulate growth hormones like cytokinins, indoleacetic acid and gibberellins (Marha et al., 2000) and release siderophores compounds that serve as chelating agents for various minerals and cations that increase the availability of these elements in soil (Marin et al., 2001).

    The advantages attributed to the application of yeast inoculants on enhancing vegetative and floral characteristics might be due to the direct or indirect effect of it's ability to change the environment of the root system to form a fine network of polysaccharide that behaves symbiotically with the rhizome, or because the development of the yeast after its saturation with groups of amino acids and vitamins. For example, Subba and Rao (1984) discuss that yeast induces the absorption of nutrient elements by buffering/stabilizing the soil pH near neutral. Ahmed et al. (1995) and Glick (1995) report that the yeast is capable of increasing the stimulative growth compounds like gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins that act in improving plant cell division and growth.

    Furthermore, active yeast and yeast extracts are suggested to participate in the role of sugar accumulation in soils during vegetative and reproductive stages of development improving soil fertility (Barnett et al, 1990). Yeast is also an abundant source of cryoprotective agents, sugars and amino acids (Shady, 1978 and Mahmoued, 2001).

    References and further reading

    "Abscisic Acid - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 16 September 2004. Identification and Related Records. Retrieved 22 October 2011. Zhu, Jian-Kang (2002). "Salt and Drought Stress Signal Transduction in Plants". Annual Review of Plant Biology 53: 247–73. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.53.091401.143329. PMC 3128348. PMID 12221975. A.O.A.C. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Agriculture Chemists. Published by Association of Official Agriculture Chemists. 3rd Ed. Washington, D.C., USA.

    Abd-El-Dayem,H.M.M. and El –Deeb, A.E.A. ( 2000). Effect of some growth regulators on growth, yield components and some
    chemical constituents of cotton plants
    . Ann. Agric . Sci. Moshtohor, 38 ( 2): 907-925

    Abou-Aly, H. A. (2005). Stimulatory effect of some yeast applications on response of tomato plants to inoculation with bio-fertilizers.
    Annals. Sci. . Moshtohor, 43 (2):595-609.

    Amer, S. S. A. ( 2004). Growth, green pods yield and seeds yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) as affected by active dry
    yeast, salicylic acid and their interaction. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura. Univ., 29 (3): 1407-1422.

    Barnett, J. A.; Payne, R. W. and Yarrow, D.( 1990). Yeasts characteristics and identification. Cambradge. Camb. CBZBR, pp
    999.

    Bastawisy, M. H and Sorial, M. E.( 1998). The physiological role of spraying some mineral nutrients on growth, flowering, abscission,
    endogenous auxin and yield of faba bean. J. Agric. Res., Zagazig univ., 25 (2): 271-284.

    Davis, W. J. and Zhang, M. J. (1991). Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil . Plant Mol.
    Biol. 42: 55 -76.

    Derieux, M., Krerrest, R. and Montalant, Y. (1973). Etude dela surface foliaive et de lactivite photosynthetique chez kulkues hybrid de
    mais. Ann. Amelior Plants, 23: 95-107.

    Dubois, M.,. Gilles, K. A;. Hamilton. J. K.; Rebens, P. A.and Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric methods for determination sugars and related
    substances. Annals. Chem. Soc., 46: 1662- 1669.

    El- Desouky, S.A., Wans, A. L. and Khedr. Z. M. (1998). Utlization of some natural plant extracts ( of garlic and yeast ) as seed – soaked
    materials to squash ( Cucurbatia pepo L). I- Effect on growth, sex expression and fruit yield and quality
    . J. Agric. Sci. Moshtohor,
    Zagazig. Univ., 35 (2): 839-854. J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci., 2009, 4(2), 109-127 125

    El-Desouky, S. A; Khedr, Z. M; Wans, A.L.; Ahmed, H. S. (2001). Resonance of the Egyptian cotton plant to foliar spray with some
    macr - nutrients (NPK) and the growth regulators paclobutrazol (pp333).2 Effect on reproductive growth, anatomy of flower
    pedicel and yield components,39 (2): 240- 253.

    El-Sherbeny, S. E.; Khalil, M. and Hussepn, M.S. (2007). Growth and productivity of rue (Ruts graveolens) under different foliar
    fertilizers application. J.Appli. Sci. Res, 3 (5): 399-407.

    Fathy,E.L.; Farid, S. and El- Desouky, S. A. (2000). Induce cold tolerance of outdoor tomato during early summer seasons by using
    adenosine tri phosphate (ATP), yeast, other natural and chemical treatments to improve their fruiting and yield.
    J.Agric. Sci.
    Mansura.. Univ., 5 (1): 377-401.

    Gerendas, J. and Sattelmatcher, B. (1990). Influence of nitrogen form and concentration on growth and ionic balance of tomato
    (Lycoperiscum esculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In plant nutration physiology and application (M.L. van Beusichem,
    ed).pp. 33-37. Kluuwer Academic Dordrecht.

    Hopkins, W. G. (1995). Carbon assimilation and productivity. In introduction to plant physiology. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. ed. pp:
    251-261.

    Horneck, D. A. and Hanson, D. (1998). Determination of potassuim and sodium by flame Emission spectrophotometry. In hand book of
    reference methods for plant analysis, e.d Kolra, Y. P.(e.d). 153-155.

    Horneck, D. A. and Miller, R. O. (1998). Determination of total nitrogen in plant tissue. In hand book of reference methods for
    plant analysis, e.d Kolra,Y.P.(e.d). 73.

    Koshioka, M.; Harada J.; Noma,M.; Sassa, T.; Ogiama, K.; Taylor, J. S.; Rood, S. B.; Legge R. L., and . Pharis, R. P (1983). Reversed
    phase C18 high performance liquid Chromatography of acidic and conjugated gibberellins. J. Chromatgr, 256: 101-115.

    Mahady, A.E.M, (1990). Effect of phosphorus fertilizers.Some micronutrents and plant density on growth and yield of broad bean. Ph.D.
    thesis Fac. Agric.Moshtohor, Zagazig. Univ., Egypt.

    Mahmoued, T. R. ( 2001). Botanical studies on the growth and germination of mahnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) plants. M. Sci.
    Thesis. Fac. of Agric. Moshtohor, Zagazig Univ., Egypt.
    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails Effect of Yeast Extract on the Growth of Plants - Nature 132; VIRTANEN &  SYNNÖVE V. HAUSEN-dsc03617.jpg  
    Last edited by Trifid; 11-25-2011 at 03:22 AM.
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  7. #7
    DAB DABaracuss's Avatar
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    Wow what a read ! Nice ..SO after all that ..does or has anyone else tried this and how and when and how much do you use per plant?also found this about yeast its not all about plants but its some info.


    Yeast Make Plant Hormone That Speeds Infection, Scientists Discover

    May 27, 2010 — In their ongoing studies of how yeast (fungi) can infect a host and cause disease, a research team at the Life Sciences and Bioengineering Center at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has made an unexpected discovery. They found that yeast produce a hormone previously known to be made by plants, and that the presence of that hormone in sufficient quantity within the yeast's immediate environment triggers the fungal cells to become more infectious.




    The WPI research team led by Reeta Prusty Rao, PhD, assistant professor of biology and biotechnology, working in collaboration with Jennifer Normanly, PhD, associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, reported their findings in the May 2010 issue of the journal Genetics. The paper was featured in the "highlights" section of the journal, where the editors called it a "surprising finding."
    "This is a well-known plant hormone. In fact, it was first described in plants by Charles Darwin in 1880," Prusty Rao said. "So we were surprised to see it made in yeast, and to see its impact on virulence traits of fungi that cause disease in people."
    Commonly called baker's yeast or brewer's yeast, the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) does not cause human disease. It is, however, a model system for studying other fungi like Candida albicans (C. albicans) that do cause diseases like thrush and vaginal yeast infections, which affect millions of people each year and are not easily cleared by the handful of anti-fungal drugs currently available. While most fungal infections do not cause serious harm, if one spreads to the bloodstream it can be deadly. Hospitalized patients with catheters or central intravenous lines are at risk, as the fungi can grow on those devices and enter the body. Because of the lack of an effective treatment, the mortality rate for some systemic fungal infections is nearly 45 percent. Prusty Rao's lab explores the basic biology of yeast to better understand the processes of fungal infections and to identify potential targets for new drug development.
    Before fungi begin to infect a host, they first undergo a dramatic physical change and grow filaments that look like twigs on a leafless tree. The hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) regulates how plants grow, causing them to extend shoots towards sunlight. Previous work by Prusty Rao and others has shown that yeast take-up IAA from the environment to stimulate the growth of filaments. In the current study, Prusty Rao's team found that yeast also produce IAA themselves and secrete it into the environment around them. In this manner, the ongoing secretion and uptake of IAA presumably becomes a feedback loop giving the yeast information about the number of yeast nearby. If there are many yeast secreting IAA, then there is more in the environment to take up.
    Furthermore, Prusty Rao's team found that when the concentration of IAA reached a certain threshold, the fungus began to change shape and grow filaments, providing "strong support" for a connection between the yeasts' production of IAA and fungal infection.
    "If there is just one yeast cell sitting under your toe nail, then it won't be a problem -- but if there are a thousand yeast cells there, then they can begin to filament and cause infection," Prusty Rao noted. "We believe the data show that IAA plays a role in the yeast's ability to know when there are sufficient numbers of them in close enough proximity to try and infect a host, be it a plant or a person." http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0526134243.htm
    Last edited by DABaracuss; 03-21-2013 at 01:56 AM.

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