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Why Your Weed Smells. Terpenoids.

TaNg

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I've noticed there is nothing on the forum about terpenoids so thought I would throw up a little info from the web.


Have you ever wondered how the strain Blue Dream can smell so similar to fresh blueberry doughnuts? Or how a sniff of the K.O. Kali-O seems to burst with citrus just like a California Orange? Yes, it is the cannabis. More specifically, what you are really smelling (and tasting) are terpenes.

Terpenes are a large and varied class of hydrocarbons (made up of hydrogen and carbon), produced by a wide variety of plants and also, some insects. Terpenes are referred to as terpenoids when denatured by oxidation (like being dried and cured) or chemically altered by some rearrangement of the carbon skeleton. They are the main component of any plant resin or essential oils and play many important roles in the plant kingdom- from deterring insect predation, protection from environmental stresses and vitally, as chemical building blocks for more complex molecules, like cannabinoids, certain hormones, vitamins (Vitamin A), pigments and sterols.

Terpenoids contribute to the scent of eucalyptus, the flavors of cinnamon, cloves, and ginger, and the color of yellow flowers. Well-known terpenoids include citral, menthol, Salvinorin A in the plant Salvia divinorum and also cannabinoids.

Plant terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities. They play a role in traditional herbal remedies and are currently under investigation for antibacterial, anti-neoplastic (cancer halting), and other pharmaceutical functions.

We are all familiar with cannabis as medicine or as a recreational drug, but the more subtle aspect of it being an aromatic plant goes too often unsaid. The herbs we use in our kitchen are considered aromatic plants because they contain a particular terpene profile that gives a distinctive flavor. Cannabis is so complex from this point of view that the possible terpene combinations are endless, creating a broad spectrum of aromas and flavors.

Many plant terpenes act synergistically with other terpenes and some serve to either catalyze or inhibit formation of other compounds within a plant. For example, understanding the role of certain terpenes will allow scientists to manipulate cannabinoids to desired ratios. Some terpenes are said to modulate the physiological and psychoactive effects of cannabis.

Cannabis ususally contains a significant amount of a terpene called beta-caryophyllene (BCP), which contributes to the aroma and flavor. Studies show that this terpene, also found in other legal herbs, spices and food plants (it contributes to the spiciness of black pepper), activates the CB2 receptor and acts as a non-psychoactive anti-inflammatory. Because it binds to a cannabinoid receptor, it is considered a cannabinoid and since the widespread natural plant product beta-caryophyllene is an FDA approved food additive and ingested daily with food, it is the first dietary cannabinoid. Whether this compound is able to modulate inflammatory processes in humans via the endocannabinoid system is yet unknown.

Additional research is needed into how these legal compounds participate in providing medicinal properties to marijuana. However, unjust Schedule I classification makes it illegal to extract perfectly legal compounds from the cannabis plant in a lab.

The Green House Seed Company based in Holland, has isolated 16 of the most characteristic and recognizable terpenes, the one�s involved in the distinctive flavor of any strain. For example, Alpha-Pinene is an organic compound found in the oils of many species of pine trees. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary and present in the oil extracted from the eucalyptus tree. This terpene was also found at the highest level in the Super Silver Haze when analyzed by the Green House Seed company. So, if you like pine-tree smelling and tasting cannabis, you might respond well to this strain.

Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is a monoterpene and an organic compound. It is obtained from the essential oil of various plants: bay, mango, myrcia (from which is gets its name) and cannabis, but not hemp. Its odor is described as clove-like, earthy, green-vegetative, citrus, and fruity with tropical mango and minty nuances.

In volume III of the Big book of Buds, Ed Rosenthal states that the presence of Myrcene is an important factor in the quality and enjoyment of the high from smoking certain Cannabis strains, particularly those strains that came from tropical climates � namely Sativas. Myrcene is also one of the most important chemicals used in the perfumery industry because of its pleasant odor. Although it is rarely used directly, it acts as an intermediate for the preparation of flavor and fragrance chemicals such as menthol and geraniol.

Limonene is another terpene. It is a colourless liquid at room temperatures with an extremely strong smell of oranges. According to an article in Cannabis Science, limonene can induce �relaxation� and has it�s own unique pharmacology. It takes its name from the lemon because lemon and other citrus fruits contain high quantities of this compound, which is responsible for much of their smell. Interestingly, it has been considered as a bio-fuel as it is combustible when pure. It is also present in many cannabis strains.

There are over 120 kinds of terpenes in cannabis, some only in trace amounts with others in double-digit percentage. Being able to measure these volatile compounds before and after a breeding experiment will offer the cannabis scientist endless opportunities for developing new flavors by basing breeding decisions on real analytical data.

Examples of some common Terpenes found in Cannabis:
-Borneol- menthol, camphor, pine, woody. Can be easily converted into menthol. Found in Cinnamon and Wormwood. It is considered a "calming sedative" in Chinese medicine. It is directed for fatigue, recovery from illness and stress.
-Caryophyllene - spicy, sweet, woody, clove, camphor, peppery. Found in black pepper(15-25%), clove(10-20%) and cotton(15-25%). It binds weakly to CB2 receptor. As a topical it is one of the constituents of clove oil, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic treatment for toothache. In high amounts, it�s a calcium and potassium ion channel blocker. As a result, it impedes the pressure exerted by heart muscles. Since THC does not have a smell, drug dogs are trained to find one, very smelly molecule called Caryophyllene-epoxide!
-Cineole/Eucalyptol- spicy, camphor, refreshing, minty. Found in rosemary, eucalyptus. It is used to increase circulation, pain relief and easily crosses the blood-brain-barrier to trigger fast olfactory reaction. Eucalyptus oil is considered centering, balancing and stimulating. It is possibly the stimulating and thought provoking part of the cannabis smoke stream.
-Delta3Carene- sweet, pine, cedar, woodsy, pungent. A constituent of rosemary, pine and cedar resin. In aroma therapy, cypress oil, high in D-3-carene, is used to dry excess fluids, tears, running noses, excess menstrual flow and perspiration. It may contribute to the dry eye and mouth experienced by some marijuana users.
-Limonene- citrus (orange, tangerine, lemon, and grapefruit), rosemary, juniper, peppermint. Repulsive to predators. Found in the rinds of many fruits and flowers. With the presence of other certain terpenes, Limonene can be an anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-depressant and anti- carcinogen. It can synergistically promote the absorption of other terpenes by quickly penetrating cell membranes. The result can be increased systolic blood pressure. Since Limonene is such a potent anti-fungal and anti-cancer agent, it is thought to protect against aspergillus fungi and carcinogens found in cannabis smoke streams!
-Linolool- floral (spring flowers), lily, citrus and candied spice. Possesses anti-anxiety and sedative properties (also in lavender).
-Myrcene � clove like, earthy, green-vegetative, citrus, fruity with tropical mango and minty nuances. The most prevalent terpene found in most varieties of marijuana, it is also present in high amounts in Mangos, hops, lemon grass, East Indian bay tree, verbena and Mercia. Myrcene is one of the most important chemicals used in the perfumery industry. Because of its pleasant odor, it is occasionally used directly. It�s a building block for menthol, citronella, and geraniol. It possesses antimicrobial, antiseptic, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogen, anti depressant, anti-inflammatory, and muscle relaxing effects. Myrcene affects the permeability of the cell membranes, allowing more THC to reach brain cells.
-Pinene- Alpha: pine needles, rosemary Beta: dill, parsley, rosemary, basil, yarrow, rose, hops, the familiar odor associated with pine trees and their resins. It is the major component in turpentine and is found in many other plant essential oils including rosemary, sage, and eucalyptus. Pinene can increase mental focus and energy, as well as act as an expectorant, bronchodilator (the smoke seems to expand in your lungs), and topical antiseptic. It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it inhibits activity of acetylcholinesterase, which destroys acetylcholine, an information transfer molecule, resulting in better memory. It may counteract THC's activity, which leads to low acetylcholine levels. Largely due to the presence of pinene, rosemary and sage are both considered "memory plants." Concoctions made from their leaves have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine to retain and restore memory.
-Pulegone- mint, camphor, rosemary, candy. It is implicated in liver damage in very high dosages. It is found in tiny quantities in marijuana. Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. That is, it stops the action of the protein that destroys acetylcholine, which is used by the brain to store memories.
-Sabinene - Found in oak trees, tea tree oil, black pepper and is a major constituent of carrot seed oil.
-Terpineol- floral, lilac, citrus, apple/orange blossoms, lime. It is a minor constituent of many plant essential oils. It is used in perfumes and soaps for fragrance. It reduces physical motility 45% in lab rat tests� Couch-lock effect?"

Here are the links....http://berkeleypatientscare.com/2010/10/08/terpenes-terpenoids-and-cannabis/


http://terpenes.weebly.com/
 

User K

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That's awesome bro. Just by Looking at that defence has made me realise what smells I'm trying to think off, very handy bro :five:
 

Balarama

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Awesome post!

Thank you, TaNgThank You
 

tokaite

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:thumbs: Nice stuff...

So best way to benefit from these terpene's medical properties, woulld it be with vaping?
Maybe, it would be beneficial to start like 40-60 C ?
:peace:
 

Nam80232

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Great stuff, thanks for sharing with us! :tiphat:
 

Waira

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High 5 That is an excellent overview on terpenes, Tang-san! It's one of the most important but poorly understood facets of MJ by those who partake... how many times have we seen folks judge MJ solely by it's aroma/flavor, even placebo-effecting themselves into feeling more stoned that they really are.... LOL! As mentioned, THC is odorless, but very very few realize it! The synergistic effects and pharmacology behind them is fascinating,... who'da thought,... aroma therapy wasn't all quackery! I've often wondered how perfume professionals get trained to ID and differentiate all the different terp's and 'classic' combos' thereof,... aside from having the purely physical asset of a "super-smeller" nose,... It would be a total gas to have the chance to smell-sample pure terp's and combo's, and super-tune your nose! Have you checked out Sweet Seeds aromatics evaluation system here in the smoke reports? Very cool,... aroma notes like 'church', which is a classic, readily ID'ed aroma by folks, but is very hard to describe,.... stylez rasta smoke Thanks TaNg!! A must read in my book...
 
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TaNg

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Thanks dude I agree about the sweet seeds fragrance check list its great.
 

Duggy

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:thread:
 

Mossy

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It would be a total gas to have the chance to smell-sample pure terp's and
combo's, and super-tune your nose!
The Nose Knows waira..all the Dragon Masters have been taught to train their noses...:wiz:..it Works...

Ed Rosenthal has some good work on terps too in his newest canna hand-book..Amazon used to have a "Look Inside" option on the book..so it can be viewed for free.
 
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